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Saturday, August 6, 2016

Create an outline before writing your first draft

An essay outline is probably the most important friend you will have while writing your essay. It is the scaffolding of your paper and the skeleton of your ideas. It is the framework by which you will write a killer essay. And frankly, it is difficult to write one without an outline.


How to Write an Outline




What is it?

An outline is a general plan of the material that is to be presented in a speech or a paper. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.



Order in an Outline


There are many ways to arrange the different parts of a subject. Sometimes, a chronological arrangement works well. At other times, a spatial arrangement is best suited to the material. The most common order in outlines is to go from the general to the specific. This means you begin with a general idea and then support it with specific examples.


Thesis Statement of Summarizing Sentence

All outlines should begin with a thesis statement of summarizing sentence. This thesis sentence presents the central idea of the paper. It must always be a complete, grammatical sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the point of view you are taking towards the subject.


Types of Outlines


The two main types of outlines are the topic outline and the sentence outline. In the topic outline, the headings are given in single words or brief phrases. In the sentence outline, all the headings are expressed in complete sentences.





Rules for Outlining


1. Subdivide topics by a system of numbers and letters, followed by a period.
Example:
I.
    A.
    B.
        1.
        2.
            a.
            b.
II.
    A.
    B.
2. Each heading and subheading must have at least two parts.
3. Headings for parts of the paper of speech such as, Introduction and Conclusion, should not be used.
4. Be consistent. Do not mix up the two types of outlines. Use either whole sentences of brief phrases, but not both.







Examples



Topic Outline


Choices in College and After

Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my life’s work.
    I. Two decisions described
A. Art history or chemistry
1. Professional considerations
2. Personal considerations

B. A third year of French?
1. Practical advantages of knowing a  foreign  language
2. Intellectual advantages
3. The issue of necessity

    II. Definition of the problem
A. Decisions about occupation
B. Decisions about a kind of life to lead

    III. Temporary resolution of the problem
A. To hold open a professional possibility: chemistry
B. To take advantage of cultural gains already made: French









Sentence Outline


Choices in College and After


Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my life’s work.
I. I have two decisions to make with respect to choosing college courses in the immediate future.

A. One is whether to elect a course in art history or in chemistry.
1. One time in my life, I planned to be a chemical engineer professionally.
2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and plan to travel and see more of it.

B. The second decision is whether to continue a third year of French beyond the basic college requirement.
1. French might be useful both in engineering and travel.
2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good books which are written in French.
3. How necessary are these considerations in the light of other courses I might take instead?

II. My problem can be put in the form of a dilemma involving larger questions about my whole future.

A. On the one hand I want to hold a highly-trained position in a lucrative profession.
B. On the other hand I want to lead a certain kind of life, with capacities for values not connected with the making of money.

III. I will have to make a decision balancing the conflicting needs I have described.

A. I will hold open the professional possibilities by electing chemistry.
B. I will improve and solidify what cultural proficiency in another language I have already gained, by electing French.





How to Write an Outline

An outline breaks down the parts of your thesis in a clear, hierarchical manner. Most students find that writing an outline before beginning the paper is most helpful in organizing one's thoughts. If your outline is good, your paper should be easy to write.

The basic format for an outline uses an alternating series of numbers and letters, indented accordingly, to indicate levels of importance. 

Here is an example of an outline on a paper about the development of Japanese theater:

OUTLINE NOTES
I. Thesis: Japanese theater rose from a popular to elite and then returned to a popular art form. The thesis is stated in the first section, which is the introduction.
  • II. Early theatrical forms
    • A. Bugaku
    • B. Sarugaku
    • C. Primitive Noh
    • D. Authors and Audience
  • III. Noh theater
    • A. Authors
    • B. Props
      • 1. Masks
        • a. women
        • b. demons
        • c. old men
      • 2. Structure of Stage
    • C. Themes
      • 1. Buddhist influence
      • 2. The supernatural
    • D. Kyogen interludes
    • E. Audience
  • IV. Kabuki
    • A. Authors
    • B. Props
      • 1. make-up
      • 2. special effects
    • C. Themes
      • 1. Love stories
      • 2. Revenge
    • D. Audience
  • V. Bunraku (puppet) theater
    • A. Authors
    • B. Props
    • C. Themes
      • 1. Love stories
      • 2. Historical romances
    • D. Audience
The body follows the introduction, and breaks down the points the author wishes to make.
Note that some section have subdivisions, others do not, depending on the demands of the paper.
In this outline, II, III, & IV all have similar structure, but this will not necessarily be true for all papers. Some may only have three major sections, others more than the five given here.
VI. Conclusion Your conclusion should restate your thesis, and never introduce new material.








When you begin writing an essay outline, use the following model as a guide:

I. INTRODUCTION:

Thesis:_____________________________________________________.



II. BODY PARAGRAPH 1:

Opening Sentence:___________________________________________.

Detail 1:____________________________________________________.

Detail 2:____________________________________________________.

Detail 3:____________________________________________________.



III. BODY PARAGRAPH II:

Transition/Opening Sentence:_________________________________.

Detail 1:____________________________________________________.

Detail 2:____________________________________________________.

Detail 3:____________________________________________________.



IV. BODY PARAGRAPH III:

Transition/Opening Sentence:_________________________________.

Detail 1:____________________________________________________.

Detail 2:____________________________________________________.

Detail 3:____________________________________________________.



V. BODY PARAGRAPH IV:

Transition/Opening Sentence:_________________________________.

Detail 1:____________________________________________________.

Detail 2:____________________________________________________.

Detail 3:____________________________________________________.



VI. CONCLUSION:

Reconfirmed Thesis:_________________________________________.


If you use this rough guide and fill in the blanks as you are researching your essay, you will find writing the essay so simple. You have all you need in front of you. It is researched and organized. All you have to do now is fill in the blanks with transition words and smooth language.



SOURCES
http://www.bookrags.com/articles/2.html
http://www.essaywritinghelp.com/outline.htm
http://www.suite101.com/content/how-to-write-an-essay-outline-a98961
http://www.albany.edu/eas/170/outline.htm
http://www.lavc.edu/library/outline.htm




    - Updated by Vince on Sat 20 Aug 2016



    1 comment:

    1. With outlining, it would be good to plan ahead of all the work you might encounter. Thesis writing is certainly is pure hard work, but it would be a lot easier if you plan it. That way, everything would just fall into place. It would also help avoid problems that might take up time in finding a solution and fixing it.

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